AWS Announces Amazon Quantum Ledger Database (QLDB) and Amazon Managed Blockchain

Amazon announced two new services to help companies manage business transactions that require full auditability. Amazon QLDB is a transparent, immutable, and cryptographically verifiable ledger for applications that need a central, trusted authority to provide a permanent and complete record of transactions (for example, supply chain, financial, manufacturing, insurance, and HR). For customers who want to build applications where multiple parties can execute transactions without the need for a trusted, central authority, Amazon Managed Blockchain makes it easy to create and manage scalable blockchain networks using the popular, open source Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric frameworks. With a few clicks in the AWS Management Console, customers can set up a blockchain network that can span multiple AWS accounts and scale to support thousands of applications and millions of transactions.

“AWS teams have been using Amazon QLDB for years to maintain a complete, immutable, and append-only journal of data changes. We started out trying to use relational databases to do this, but quickly found they could not scale or deliver the performance we needed to support our most widely-used services,” said Shawn Bice, Vice President, Nonrelational Databases at AWS. “Earlier this year, when we started talking to customers about what they needed from a blockchain solution, we realized that the Amazon QLDB’s ledger technology met a lot of their requirements. They wanted a centrally-owned ledger that provided an immutable way to log the transactions history of their applications and was transparent to all the parties with whom they were interacting. So, today we’re offering an immutable, transparent, and cryptographically verifiable ledger, based on the same one that AWS teams have been using for years at scale, as a fully managed service.”

Amazon Managed Blockchain: An easy way to create and manage scalable blockchain networks (available in preview)

Other customers want the immutable and verifiable capability provided by a ledger, however they also want to allow multiple parties to transact, execute contracts, and share data without a trusted central authority. For this, customers use blockchain frameworks like Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric. But setting up these frameworks is hard and time consuming. Each member of a permissioned network has to provision hardware, install software, create, and manage certificates for access control, and configure network settings. As usage of a blockchain application grows, there is a lot of work involved in scaling the network, including monitoring resources across all nodes, adding or removing hardware, and managing the availability of the entire network. This complexity is the reason many customers typically need the help of expensive consultants to make blockchain work.

Amazon Managed Blockchain is a new, fully managed blockchain service that makes it easy and cost-effective for customers to create and manage secure blockchain networks that can scale to support thousands of applications running millions of transactions. Amazon Managed Blockchain supports two popular open source blockchain frameworks, Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric, and setting up a blockchain network is as easy as a few clicks in the AWS Management Console. Customers simply choose their preferred framework, add network members, and configure the member nodes that will process transaction requests. Amazon Managed Blockchain takes care of the rest, creating a blockchain network that can span multiple AWS accounts with multiple nodes per member, and configuring software, security, and network settings. For a permissioned network, Amazon Managed Blockchain secures and manages blockchain network certificates with AWS Key Management Service, eliminating the need for customers to set up their own secure key storage.

Amazon Managed Blockchain contains a voting API that allows network members to quickly vote to add or remove members. And, as application usage grows, customers can add more capacity to the blockchain network with a simple API call. Amazon Managed Blockchain offers a range of instances with different combinations of compute and memory capacity to give customers the ability to choose the right mix of resources for their blockchain applications.

To learn more about Amazon QLDB, visit To learn more about Amazon Managed Blockchain, visit:

MasterCard and Microsoft to Develop “Universally Recognised” ID System

The press release doesn’t say “blockchain” but a whitepaper does…

Microsoft, Mastercard have teamed up to develop a “universally recognised” and decentralised digital identity service, the two said today.

Although they offered precious little detail on how the service would work, saying “additional details on these efforts will be shared in the coming months”, a previous whitepaper by Microsoft provides some clues.

The move will serve as the foundation for new Mastercard services powered by Microsoft Azure and built-in collaboration with the banking, mobile network operator and government communities, the two said.

“Today’s digital identity landscape is patchy, inconsistent and what works in one country often won’t work in another. We have an opportunity to establish a system that puts people first, giving them control of their identity data and where it is used,” added Ajay Bhalla, president, cyber and intelligence solutions, Mastercard.

“Working with Microsoft brings us one step closer to making a globally interoperable digital identity service a reality, and we look forward to sharing more very soon.”

microsoft, mastercard
A screengrab from Microsoft’s “decentralised identity” whitepaper

Microsoft, Mastercard ID System: Does it Involve Blockchain?

A whitepaper by Microsoft on “decentralised identity” cites a technical foundation “made up of seven key innovations” – and yes, blockchain is a core component.

“Microsoft is actively collaborating with members of the Decentralized Identity Foundation (DIF), the W3C Credentials Community Group, and the wider identity community. We’re working with these groups to identify and develop critical standards. We’re developing an open source DID implementation that runs atop existing public chains as a public Layer 2 network designed for world-scale use”, it reads.

The whitepaper details seven innovations.

1: W3C Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs): “Globally unique identifiers linked to Decentralised Public Key Infrastructure (DPKI) metadata composed of JSON documents that contain public key material, authentication descriptors, and service endpoints.”

2Decentralised systems (e.g. blockchains): These provide the mechanism and features required for DPKI (Microsoft is helping develop them) and “allow for a vibrant ecosystem of DID implementations that support a variety of blockchains and ledgers.”

3: DID User Agents: User Agent apps help create DIDs, managing data and permissions, and signing/validating DID-linked claims. “Microsoft will offer a Wallet-like app that can act as  User Agent for managing DIDs and associated data.”

4: DIF Universal Resolver: A server that uses a collection of DID Drivers to provide a standard means of lookup and resolution for DIDs across systems.

5: DIF Identity Hubs: “A replicated mesh of encrypted personal datastores, composed of cloud and edge instances (like mobile phones, PCs or smart speakers), that facilitate identity data storage and identity interactions.”

6: DID Attestations: These are “based on standard formats and protocols” Microsoft says, without further detail. They enable identity owners to generate, present, and verify claims. This forms the basis of trust between users of the systems.

7: Decentralised apps: “DIDs paired with Identity Hub personal datastores enable the creation of a new class of apps and services.

“New and Enhanced Experiences”

“Access to a universally-recognised digital identity could unlock new and enhanced experiences for people as they interact with businesses, service providers and their community online”, the two said.

They cited benefits including streamlined e-commerce, friction-free government services and a rise in “identity inclusion” for the estimated one billion people who are not “officially recognised”.

Ripple’s XRP Added to’s Wallet & Card App Adds XRP to Wallet & Card App

Hong Kong-based crypto and payments platform just added Ripple’s XRP digital currency to its Wallet & Card App for iOS and Android. announced the news in a press release. The app already supports bitcoin (BTC), Ether (ETH), Litecoin (LTC), Binance Coin (BNB), and’s native MCO token. Now, it supports Ripple’s XRP digital currency, which has been on a bull run over the past few weeks.

The app allows users to send, buy, sell, store and track cryptocurrencies – similar to other wallet apps. You can also order a physical card that allows you to spend cryptocurrency as easily as you would use a credit card.

The price of XRP seemed unaffected by the news. The coin is down 4.64% over the last 24 hours. XRP surged in value earlier this week after a slew of positive announcements, including news from Ripple’s Swell conference in San Francisco. At that conference, it was also confirmed that three financial institutions were already using Ripple’s xRapid technology – which uses the XRP digital currency – for commercial purposes.

While XRP remains about even on the week, the price of XRP has doubled in the last 2 to 3 weeks over excitement about the continued growth of Ripple’s xRapid protocol. On September 17, XRP was sitting at a price of $0.27. Since September 21, XRP has held steady above $0.50.

This is the first coin that is releasing on its new platform. The new infrastructure of the platform will make it easier to add new coins in the future. also expects the new infrastructure to lead to faster withdrawals and better security, among other user benefits.

“XRP is the first coin that we’re releasing on our newly built backend infrastructure, which allows us to add new coins faster, as well as, to perform faster withdrawals, all while maintaining full security of the platform,” explains Kris Marszalek, co-founder and CEO of plans to continue adding more coins in the future:

“We intend to increase the number of coins listed aggressively, to eventually cover all cryptocurrencies that matter.” conducts an internal review and evaluation process before adding a new cryptocurrency to their platform. It’s unclear which cryptocurrencies may be added to next, and the press release didn’t give us any hints.

The Wallet & Card App is available for free for iOS and Android. is a Hong Kong-headquartered company seeking to accelerate cryptocurrency adoption worldwide through its flagship app. You can learn more or download the Wallet & Card App today by visiting

Google opens Cloud region in Hong Kong

Google this week opened its sixth Asia Pacific (APAC) region in Hong Kong, promising faster access to businesses both in Hong Kong and neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. The region was first promised in November 2017.

The opening was announced by Kirill Tropin, a manager at Google Cloud in a blog entry: “Our Hong Kong region is officially open for business. This new region – our eighteenth overall – will give both local and large multinational companies doing business in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia faster access to their data and applications.”


High availability

The Hong Kong GCP region is known as “asia-east2” and has three availability zones to let customers distribute their workloads and storage for a higher level of availability

Tropin noted that Google Cloud has expanded the number of Google Cloud Platform (GCP) regions in APAC from three to six over the last 18 months. According to him, the applications in the new region can improve latency for end users in Hong Kong by up to 14ms, while customers in Vietnam and the Philippines will also benefit from a 25 to 30 percent improvement in latency.

Like the other top cloud providers, Google has been steadily growing its presence and beefing up existing facilities in the Asia Pacific. In August, the cloud giant announced that it is building its third data center in Singapore as part of its plans to scale up capacity to meet increasing demand for its services in the region.

In the same blog, Tropin also offered additional information about Google’s upcoming GCP region in Indonesia, which was first mentioned last month. The Indonesia GCP region will be in Jakarta and be launched in 2020, he said. Notably, Tropin also revealed that the Jakarta region will be designed for high availability with three availability zones.

AWS starts offering Graviton, a custom Arm CPU built by Amazon

At AWS re:Invent in Las Vegas, Amazon Web Services announced that it is now offering Arm CPU-based instances for the first time.

The ‘Graviton’ 64-bit processor was designed in-house; it was created by Annapurna Labs, a chip company Amazon acquired for $350m in 2015. Annapurna also developed two generations of ‘Nitro’ ASICs that run networking and storage tasks in Amazon’s data centers.

The Cloud Arms race

“With today’s introduction of A1 instances, we’re providing customers with a cost optimized way to run distributed applications like containerized microservices,” Matt Garman, VP of compute services at AWS, said.

“A1 instances are powered by our new custom-designed AWS Graviton processors with the Arm instruction set that leverages our expertise in building hyperscale cloud platforms for over a decade.”

The A1 instances are available now in the US East (Northern Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon) and Europe (Ireland) regions as on-demand, reserved, spot and dedicated instances, and in dedicated host form. The chip is supported by Amazon Linux 2, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and Ubuntu, with support for more operating systems on the way.

There are five flavors of A1 EC2 instances – from the a1.medium with 1 vCPU, 2GB of RAM, up to 3.5Gbps EBS and 10Gbps network bandwidth, priced at $0.0255 per hour on-demand, to a1.4xlarge with 16 vCPUs and 32GB of RAM, priced at $0.408 per hour.

Depending on the workload and configuration, AWS claims that A1 instances could be up to 45 percent cheaper than its x86-based virtual machines. Image hosting platform SmugMug said that it saw 40 percent cost savings from a shift to A1.

Earlier this month, AWS announced that it would offer instances based on AMD Epyc CPUs, something that could inconvenience its long-time partner Intel, the dominant supplier of server chips.

Seagate uses tiny lasers to create world’s first 16TB hard drive

Storage hardware giant Seagate has successfully used tiny lasers to increase the capacity of a traditional 3.5-inch hard drive to 16TB.

The technology, known as Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR), employs a radically new read/write head design and a specific magnetic alloy to reduce the width of data tracks – helping store more information in the same amount of physical space.

Seagate has built and tested the first generation of HAMR drives, and said it will sell them as part of its Exos product family – aimed primarily at enterprise customers – however the exact date of the commercial launch has not been made public.

The highest capacity HDD on the market today is Western Digital’s Ultrastar DC HC620, weighing in at 15TB – but it uses Shingle Magnetic Recording (SMR), a method of storing information that boosts capacity at the expense of write speed and requires customers to modify their applications and/or operating system.

Seagate Exos HAMR 16TB - artists's impression

The upcoming Seagate Exos HAMR 16TB– Seagate

It’s HAMR Time!

HAMR relies on a very small laser diode mounted on the drive’s read/write head that heats up the storage medium – a spinning disk made of “a new kind of media magnetic technology” – before any information is written.

This allows the use of smaller magnetic grains and narrower data tracks, and results in higher areal density – which enables more data capacity.

Unlike SMR drives, HAMR drives can be used as a drop-in replacement for existing Parallel Magnetic Recording (PMR) drives – the traditional HDDs that have been serving the industry since around 1957.

The HAMR technology was proposed by Fujitsu way back in 2006, and demonstrated by Seagate in 2012, but bringing it to the market has proved complicated: Seagate originally planned to launch working drives by 2015-2016, but even after the latest set of tests, it refuses to commit to a specific launch date. The company does say, however, that HAMR technology will enable it to build 20TB+ hard drives by 2020.

“Our testing has demonstrated the drives’ compatibility for enterprise systems that are being used today. No system level changes are needed to run the HAMR drives in these evaluations, or to deploy them in customer environments,” said Jason Feist, Seagate’s senior director of enterprise product line management.

“These are the same tests that customers use to qualify every new drive, including power efficiency tests, sg3_utils utilities that test SCSI commands to devices, standard smartmontools utility programs that will enable customers to characterize and compare HAMR drives in their environment right next to PMR drives, and several four-corners tests of reads, writes, random, sequential and mixed workloads.”

U.S. FDA Eyes Blockchain to Enhance Food Safety in the Wake of E. coli Outbreak

Following an outbreak of E. coli in the United States that was linked to romaine lettuce, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is considering better track-and-trace methods and this includes the use of blockchain technology.

Speaking to business news channel CNBC, FDA commissioner Dr. Scott Gottlieb announced that the federal agency had hired the vice president of food safety at Walmart, Frank Yiannas, as its foods and veterinary medicine deputy commissioner. Yiannas is expected to introduce new track-and-trace tools to the agency.

“We have a guy starting… the former head of food safety at Walmart who is going to be coming to the FDA to help us put in place among other things better track and trace using tools like blockchain maybe to even do track-and-trace on the food supply chain,” Gottlieb said.

Pinpointing the Problem

According to Gottlieb, whenever there is a food-related outbreak, technologies such as blockchain will assist in tracing the cause to a specific distributor, farm or grower in the supply chain. This will prevent blanket warnings which affect everyone even when the cause is limited to a particular origin.

Prior to joining the FDA, Yiannas was instrumental in deploying blockchain technology at Walmart with a view of tracking leafy greens as CCN reported in September. This included the food traceability initiative which required producers of fresh, leafy greens to use blockchain technology in tracking and tracing such products. Walmart gave the suppliers one year to ensure that systems were in place for the program to take off.


While announcing the initiative at the time, Walmart noted that multiple states in the U.S. had suffered E. coli outbreaks linked to romaine lettuce and this had resulted in 96 hospitalizations and five deaths. With blockchain technology, the big box retailer added, product information such as origin would become available throughout the supply chain in real time.

“In the future, using the technology we’re requiring, a customer could potentially scan a bag of salad and know with certainty where it came from,” Yiannas said at the time.

Food Safety

Outside the United States, French retail giant Carrefour has taken similar steps to Walmart by integrating IBM’s tailored blockchain data system known as Food Trust with a view of improving food safety.

And about four months ago, the Food Standards Agency, the food safety watchdog of the United Kingdom, announced that a blockchain technology trial to track beef from the slaughterhouse to the end consumer had concluded successfully.

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Crushing it: Stellar, Litecoin, Monero, & Zcash Post Major Gains as Crypto Market Rallies

A few of the top 15 cryptocurrencies saw notable increases over the past twenty-four hours. Stellar saw a gain of 15% against the US dollar, with 22% of its volume being against USD or USD-pegged cryptocurrencies themselves – meaning these gains are realistic, not just figurative. Litecoin gained over 13% against the dollar while Monero jumped nearly 16%, and Zcash was hot on its heels.

Stellar Price up 15%

Stellar (XLM) price is up 15% against the dollar, with a 3% gain in Bitcoin valuation, over the last 24 hours. The cryptocurrency saw a 24-hour volume of almost $100 million in trading, with a gain in overall market capitalization roughly equal to that.

According to CoinMarketCap, trading against USDT accounted for roughly almost 22% across twelve markets. Notably, the most trading in a single pair happened at an exchange outside of Binance — namely, Exrates, — although overall trading did have a plurality at Binance with 18% between XLM/BTC and XLM/USDT.

Litecoin Price up 13%

Litecoin price seems to have begun to pick up around 22:00 CST last night, with an initial sell-off worth about 20,000 Satoshis per token happening for the next couple of hours. A simultaneous price-rise in Bitcoin actually meant the market capitalization of the cryptocurrency rose during this same period. Then, around 1:45 AM CST, demand seems to have to picked up and the price was on the rise yet again with 13% increase on the LTC/USD pair.

Litecoin only recovered about half its BTC value in the rebound trading, but in terms of USD it saw a significant increase. Overall volume was about $500 million over the entire 24 hour period, with more than $150 million of that having been done against USDT. Trading against PAX and USDC combined was less than $100,000.

Monero Price up $8

Privacy coin Monero, which has a small infinite inflation and a current supply of about 16.6 million, gained roughly $8 in US dollars over the 24-hour period, with $20 million traded across all exchanges and pairs.

The vast majority of Monero trading – 94% – took place on Korea’s Bithumb against the Korean Won. XMR/KRW was the was the second most active market on the exchange over 24 hours, during which period it traded nearly $2 billion overall.

Zcash Price up 16%

The Zcash (ZEC) chart is perhaps the most interesting of the bunch, with a 24-hour simultaneous rise in both market capitalization and USD price, but a drop in actual BTC-per-token valuation.

zcash price
ZEC/USD | Binance

The price wound up around $11 higher than it was 24 hours previous to 8:00 AM CST, gaining around $64 million in overall market capitalization, with more than 30% of its trading happening in the Ether market at an exchange called Lbank, and another 8% of the total volume happening at the same exchange against BTC. Another 22% of the volume happened at the same exchange as the most Monero trading, Bithumb, also against KRW. Thus a total of 60% of the ZEC volume happened in three currencies on two markets.

USDT trading of ZEC accounted for just over $20 million of the total $198 million volume, with the majority of that also happening at Lbank – that single pair making up nearly 5% of the overall volume. Collectively, Lbank accounted for $118 million of the 24-hour volume on ZEC.

Cisco Announces First Hybrid Solution for Kubernetes on Amazon Web Services

Applications are the lifeblood of business. Build them easily and get them up and running quickly and you have a huge competitive advantage. But get bogged down worrying about where those applications run, and you miss opportunities. Cisco is now solving that problem with a new solution built for Amazon Web Services (AWS) that makes running new containerized applications simple.

Organizations want the ability to develop and deploy applications anywhere they want. Across public and private clouds, without constraints. The Cisco Hybrid Solution for Kubernetes on AWS makes it easy for customers to run production-grade Kubernetes on-premises.  This is achieved by configuring on-premises Kubernetes environments to be consistent with Amazon Elastic Container Service for Kubernetes (Amazon EKS) and by combining Cisco’s networking, security, management and monitoring software with AWS’ world-class cloud services. This enables customers to focus on building and using applications, instead of being constrained by where they run.

This new solution:

  • Helps developers accelerate innovation and reduce time-to-market. Containerized applications can now be deployed and managed more easily across on-premises and the AWS cloud.
  • Reduces complexity and costs for IT operations teams. The management of on-premises Kubernetes infrastructure is simplified with a common set of tools on-premises and on AWS.
  • Meets the needs of both developers and IT operations teams.  It allows containerized applications to work with existing resources and production environments.
  • Provides world-class support. Cisco’s enterprise support covers all parts of the solution.

“Today, most customers are forced to choose between developing applications on-premises or in the cloud. This can create a complex mix of environments, technologies, teams and vendors. But they shouldn’t have to make a choice,” said Kip Compton, senior vice president, Cloud Platform and Solutions at Cisco. “Now, developers can use existing investments to build new cloud-scale applications that fuel business innovation. This makes it easier to deploy and manage hybrid applications, no matter where they run. This allows customers to get the best out of both cloud and their on-premises environments with a single solution.”

“More customers run containers on AWS and Kubernetes on AWS than anywhere else,” said Terry Wise, Global Vice President of Channels & Alliances, Amazon Web Services, Inc. “Our customers want solutions that are designed for the cloud and Cisco’s integration with Amazon EKS will make it easier for them to rapidly deploy and run containerized applications across both Cisco-based on-premises environments and the AWS cloud.”

Availability, Pricing, and Support

The Cisco Hybrid Solution for Kubernetes on AWS will be available to customers in December 2018. It will be provided as both a software-only solution requiring only the Cisco Container Platform, or a hardware/software solution with the Cisco Container Platform running on Cisco HyperFlex™. The software is licensed in one-, three- and five-year subscriptions. Pricing for software-only subscriptions will start at approximately $65,000 per year for a typical entry-level configuration.  On AWS, customers pay $0.20 per hour for each Amazon EKS cluster that they create in addition to the AWS resources (e.g. Amazon EC2 instances or Amazon Elastic Block Store volumes) they create to run Kubernetes worker nodes.

The new solution will be sold by Cisco and its global partner network. The platform will be supported by Cisco’s world-class technical support. Cisco DevNet will also provide an online resource for developers to trial and benchmark hybrid cloud applications using the solution.

Good News for Colocation Revenue Growth

First, let’s talk about how these devices will drive collocation service revenues, which IHS Markit forecasts to grow from $23 million in 2017 to $32 million in 2021; a 40% increase over the same four-year period. Data center growth is correlated with general data growth. The more data transmitted via connected devices; the more data centers are needed to store, transfer, and analyze this data. In the specific case of the Internet of Things, there’s a need for geographically distributed data centers that can provide low-latency connections to certain connected devices. There are applications, like autonomous vehicles or virtual reality, which are going to require local data centers to manage much of the data processing required to operate. Most enterprises will not have the means or the business case to build new data centers in every nook and cranny of the globe, so they will need to turn to colocation data centers to provide quickly scale-able, low capital-intensive options for geographically distributed data centers.

IHS Markit forecast Internet connectable devices to grow from 27.5 billion in 2017 to 45.4 billion in 2021; a 65% increase in just four years. What does this mean for the colocation market? Well, it’s certainly a positive driver for colocation revenue growth; however, it’s not the 1:1 ratio many industry enthusiasts once thought. Second, it’s giving colocation service providers a new opportunity to assist with the aggregation and connectivity of new end-points and data sources.

The future of colocation hosting and cloud hosting services has an ever expanding demand with more devices we will need more hosting.

Frankfurt School relies on Blockchain: Counterfeit-proof certificates for students

The verification and authentication of a certificate takes time, is expensive, and annoying. Applicants and examiners suffer from this as well as the issuers of the certificates, such as citizen centers or universities. They must regularly fight against forged certificates and the associated reputation damage. Moreover, the recipients do not have full control over the diplomas and certificates obtained.

That is why the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management is the first university in Germany to offer blockchain-based certificates. With this new technology, it is possible to create fraud-resistant certificates and statements. One can also make them permanently available without restriction – and in compliance with data regulations. For this pilot project, the business school cooperates with Consensys, one of the leading software companies in the field of blockchain. Consensys developed a decentralized app (dApp) for so-called “Self- Sovereign Identities“: An identity created by the user that is stored on the blockchain and thus tamper-proof. Data and degrees can be administered by the user. Therefore, the loss and re-certification of credentials and certificates are a thing of the past.

Veronika Kütt, a research associate at the Frankfurt School Blockchain Center and lead of the project states: “Blockchain-based certificates are fascinating. In the future, we will be able to display and verify credentials digitally. We are doing pioneering work here. Our students find it a privilege to be involved in a new technology so early on. It must have been similar to programming the first public internet sites in the mid-‘90s.“

Professor Philipp Sandner, head of the Frankfurt School Blockchain Center, adds: “Thanks to blockchain technology, it is possible to securely save personal data such as a CV or an identity card digitally. With our project, we show how easy and comfortable that can be for the user.”

The first students to receive a blockchain-based certificate from Frankfurt School also dealt with this technology in their degree course. The eleven students have completed the business school’s “Certified Blockchain Expert” program which is part of the professional education offerings. The specialists and executives from the finance, IT or consulting industry developed basic knowledge and IT skills for different applications of the blockchain technology. Now, they can use what they have learned to harness the potential of the new technology for their companies


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